Look for us at the NIEA Conference
Oct. 31st, Nov. 1st & 2nd - Rapid City, SD
Native Voices Books - Booth #400
Their tribal council has not taken action, so two elders in the Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians are.
They have sued a North Carolina roadside zoo they say keeps grizzly bears confined in “barren and archaic concrete pits,” Mitch Weiss of the Associated Press reports.
An attorney for two tribal elders filed the lawsuit Tuesday, 60 days after they filed a notice of intent to sue the operators of the Cherokee Bear Park for violating the federal Endangered Species Act. The act allows citizens to file lawsuits for violations, but it requires them to give 60-days’ notice to the violators and federal regulators.
“It’s shameful that the Cherokee Bear Zoo is still displaying intelligent, sensitive bears in tiny concrete pits,” said Amy Walker, who filed the lawsuit with fellow tribal elder Peggy Hill. “It’s obvious to anyone who sees them that these bears are suffering, and they will continue to suffer every day until they are sent to a sanctuary where they’ll finally receive the care they need.”
Some North Carolina residents have long campaigned to close this and two other privately owned bear zoos on the Cherokee Indian Reservation, including Chief Saunooke Bear Park and Santa’s Land.
Walker, Hill and other tribal elders became involved after watching a video that showed bears rocking back and forth and circling in the tiny pits.
They said bears hold a spiritual place in Cherokee history, and in February, pressed the tribal council to force the zoos to free the bears.
But the council declined to take action. Chief Michell Hicks later issued a statement saying he wanted to give private zoo owners the opportunity to create a wildlife preserve on the reservation.
The AP’s Weiss reports he Eastern Band has allowed caged animals as a tourism draw since the 1950s.
- Vince Devlin
It’s been almost five years since the U.S. Supreme Court’s decision in Carcieri v. Salazar curbed the authority of the Secretary of the Interior to take land into trust for Indian tribes.
Now, Gale Courey Toensing reports at Indian Country Today Media Network, U.S. Sen. Dianne Feinstein, D-Calif., is insisting her opposition to tribal gaming be addressed in efforts to fix laws that would clarify the secretary’s authority.
Feinstein noted that “there are more than 100 federally recognized tribes in California” and warned that “many more” tribes will seek recognition — and casinos — in the near future. “But what really sets California apart is the scale of the tribal gaming industry,” she said.
She also complained about what she calls “reservation shopping” by tribes in Wisconsin, Michigan, Arizona and Oregon ….
Michael Anderson of the Muscogee Nation and owner of Anderson Indian Law, told ICTMN the amount of land going into trust for gaming purposes has been minimal – 20 of 1,500 applications approved during the Obama administration – and that Feinstein’s prediction “that there’s going to be some kind of avalanche of new applications is overblown.”
Feinstein was testifying before the Senate Committee on Indian Affairs at a Nov. 20 hearing called “Carcieri: Bringing Certainty to Trust Land Acquisitions.”
- Vince Devlin
A well-known member of the Blackfeet Tribe has died.
Darrell Robes Kipp, one of the co-founders of the Piegan Institute in Browning and a filmmaker, author, historian and educator, died last week after a recurrence of kidney cancer, Scott Thompson and Briana Wipf of the Great Falls Tribune reported.
He was 69.
Kipp, whose Pikuni name was Apiniokio Peta, or Morning Eagle, co-founded the Piegan Institute in 1987, dedicated to archiving and preserving the Blackfoot language. The institute’s Cuts Wood School is the private elementary school that immerses young people in the Blackfoot language using a teaching method called total physical response.
The Harvard-trained Kipp became a leader in the preservation of the Blackfoot language and culture and was author of numerous books on topics such as Blackfeet mythology. In 2004, Kipp and composer Robert Kapilow collaborated on a choral and orchestral work called “Summer Sun, Winter Moon,” which was commissioned for the Lewis and Clark Bicentennial.
Kipp’s son Darren told Thompson and Wipf that he was “a sad son, but I am a thankful son. I had a really good dad.”
Darrell Kipp’s philosophy was simple, Darren explained to the Tribune.
“Whatever benefits the tribe must benefit the individual, and whatever benefits the individual must benefit the tribe, as well,” Darren remembered.
- Vince Devlin
An online petition that apologizes to the Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes has garnered nearly 300 signatures since the chairman of the Ravalli County Planning Board made
comments CSKT officials found “deeply” offensive late last week.
Five tribal members, including CSKT council member Steve Lozar, traveled to Hamilton last week to explain to Ravalli County commissioners the significance of a cultural area known as the Medicine Tree. As the Missoulian’s Perry Backus reports, the tribes want to place the 58-acre site that they purchased in 1998 in trust with the federal government.
But the meeting turned contentious when Jan Wisniewski, chairman of the planning board, offered up his observations from what he termed a “fact-finding” trip across Montana.
Wisniewski said he had a conversation with law enforcement officials in Havre who complained about their jails being filled with “drunken Indians” off the reservation.
Lozar replied that the tribal members in attendance had come to Hamilton with a “good heart” to sit down and discuss issues important to both sides.
Lozar said he was “deeply, deeply offended” to hear comments about “drunken Indians” in the Havre jail.
“We are citizens of the United States,” he said. “We serve in the military at a higher rate than others. This is our homeland. I’m offended by those comments.”
The online petition invites Ravalli County residents to sign an apology, started by Pamela Small, that says statements made by county officials at the meeting to not reflect their views.
“We extend an apology to the Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes for the offensive, unacceptable behavior of the Ravalli County Commissioners and Chairman of the Planning Board at the recent meeting concerning transfer of the Medicine Tree property to a federal trust,” the petition reads. “The opinions expressed do not represent the citizens of Ravalli County. We strongly support the Confederated Tribes right to make decisions over their sacred lands.”
- Vince Devlin
The “no-smoking” sign is going up at United Tribes Technical College.
College President David Gipp signed on Thursday a policy banning tobacco use, effective Jan. 1, UTTC announced.
It prohibits the use of tobacco on campus properties, in campus-owned vehicles, and at institution sponsored off-campus functions. It includes any product containing tobacco or manufactured from it, or containing nicotine. It also prohibits the use of e-cigarettes.
Exempted is the traditional or sacred use of tobacco. United Tribes will continue to be a “tobacco honoring” campus for Native American spiritual and cultural ceremonies, when requests are made and approved in advance.
UTTC becomes the third tribal college in the nation to ban tobacco use on its campus. The others are Fort Peck Community College in Poplar, Mont., and Oglala Lakota College in Kyle, S.D. It is the 13th college campus in North Dakota to approve a ban.
The college isn’t just banning smoking. The college said its Wellness Center will also provide a series of smoking cessation programs in 2014.
- Vince Devlin
One of the most successful tribal colleges in America inaugurated a new president Wednesday.
A tearful Robert DePoe III took his oath of office at Salish Kootenai College in Pablo, Mont., between two tepees and in front of hundreds of people in an events center named for one of his predecessors, the Missoulian reported.
DePoe takes over at what is widely considered one of the most successful tribal colleges in the nation, but one whose enrollment has fallen below 1,000 students recently.
He announced several new courses of action during his inauguration, including SKC joining a national community college program called Achieving the Dream that DePoe said would help SKC identify four campus-wide initiatives, with “every policy designed to help students succeed.”
“You are why we are here,” he told the students in attendance.
DePoe, a member of the Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes, wiped away tears several times during the 2 1/2-hour ceremony. He and his family were led into the Joe McDonald Events Center by the Veterans’ Warrior Society and dancers in full regalia while SKC students drummed and sang.
McDonald, SKC’s president for more than 30 of its 36 years of existence, introduced DePoe, a former education director for the Paiute Tribe in Utah. DePoe was employed with the Bureau of Indian Affairs when the presidency came open.
He replaced Luana Ross, who abruptly resigned 13 months ago after two years on the job, citing “irreconcilable visions” between herself and the college’s board of directors.
“Education has no bias,” DePoe told the crowd. “It doesn’t care who we are or where we come from.”
- Vince Devlin
Congress on Wednesday bestowed its highest civilian honor, the Congressional Gold Medal, on 33 Indian tribes for the wartime contributions of code talkers – Native Americans who used their native languages as a means of secret communications during world wars.
The ceremony, at the Capitol’s Emancipation Hall, honored tribes that were not included when Congress initially awarded the Gold Medal to code talkers in 2008.
Among them were the Crow, Fort Peck Assiniboine and Sioux Tribes from Montana. U.S. Rep. Steve Daines, R-Mont., was among the dozens of congressmen who attended.
Daines called the Gold Medal “long-overdue and well-deserved recognition for their critical role as code talkers during World Wars I and II.”
House Speaker John Boehner, the Associated Press reported, credited the Native Americans with saving thousands of lives during the wars using “the simplest weapon – their language.”
Ultimately, Avis Chenoweth’s goal is to make sure every Native American student she mentors in Missoula’s public school system graduates from high school.
And, as the Native American specialist for the district explained to Missoulian reporter Betsy Cohen, that means helping them succeed not only academically, but culturally and socially as well.
“What is so powerful is when a Native child sees the person who is teaching them as a reflection of themselves,” she said. “I’m not an official teacher, but it is empowering when Native students see Native teachers, principals and staff in their schools.
“It can literally change their lives – and it affects non-Native students positively because then they see Natives in a different light and that changes their world view and vision.”
Cohen reports that Chenoweth, who is Chippewa-Cree, is assigned to one high school, two middle schools and one elementary school, and has 140 students in her charge.
“I really like it because she is teaching us about all the tribes in Montana – and sometimes we do activities,” said 11-year-old Ambrie Tahbo, a member of the Dream Catchers Lunch Club at Meadow Hill School, whose heritage includes the Hopi, Tewa and Mojave tribes. “I don’t see a lot of Native American adults here, and it’s nice to have someone who is, and someone who is in our school.”
- Vince Devlin
Native American activist Melinda Gopher of Missoula says she will make sure Montana Democrats have a choice in next year’s U.S. House primary.
Gopher told Charles S. Johnson of the Lee Newspapers State Bureau she will challenge John Lewis of Helena, a former top aide to U.S. Sen. Max Baucus who announced his candidacy earlier this year.
Gopher didn’t say much about Lewis.
“On my end, I’m going to keep it positive, but at the same time, we sort of need a shake-up,” she said. “I think he’ll be more of the same of what we’ve seen for a long time. We need a new set of eyes. I don’t necessarily subscribe to doing things the same way.”
Among other things, Gopher opposes the Affordable Care Act authored by Baucus, and instead favors the single-payer system Baucus took off the table as the debate over healthcare reform began.
On the other hand, Gopher agrees with Republicans on the need for tort reform.
“I’m in favor of regulating lawyers,” she told Johnson. “I think lawyers are running amok.”
Gopher, 48, finished third in a four-way Democratic primary for the House in 2010. Her parents were of Ojibwe heritage and adopted into the Blackfeet Tribe through her grandfather.
- Vince Devlin
When high school journalism students get called to the principal’s office, it’s usually because they’ve printed something the administration doesn’t like.
But Maryclaire Dale of the Associated Press reports that when editors of the Neshaminy High School Playwickian in suburban Philadelphia got called in recently, it was because of something they refused to print.
It’s the high school athletic teams’ nickname – the Redskins.
“Detractors will argue that the word is used with all due respect. But the offensiveness of a word cannot be judged by its intended meaning, but by how it is received,” read the editorial backed by 14 of 21 staff members. (An equally well-written op-ed voiced the dissenting group’s opinion.)
The ban comes as Native American activists and a few media outlets, along with President Barack Obama, challenge the moniker of Washington’s NFL team.
Dale reported that principal Robert McGee ordered the editors to put the ban on the term “Redskins” on hold, and also ordered the Playwickian to run a full-page, $200 ad submitted by a 1972 graduate of the high school that celebrates the name.
The alumnus later pulled the ad.
“I understand that there’s an inclination to want to protect a tradition at the school,” Frank LoMonte, executive director of the Student Press Law Center in Arlington, Va., told the AP. “But the First Amendment is a longer and a better-established tradition.”
Student journalists have occasionally attempted to ban the term since 2001, but often wavered, Dale reported.
- Vince Devlin
One of five incumbents seeking re-election to the Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribal Council has failed to advance out of the primary.
It took two votes, but two challengers will be squaring off in the Elmo District in the Dec. 14 general election, the Missoulian reports.
After tying for second in a six-way race the Nov. 2 primary, Len Two Teeth will defeat Elmo representative Reuben Mathias in a run-off election held Saturday.
Even with 225 absentee and contested ballots still to be counted Wednesday, Two Teeth will be the winner. He got almost 73 percent of the 645 votes cast and counted Saturday, and holds a 293-vote lead over Mathias, 469-176.
Two Teeth carried all eight districts on the Flathead Indian Reservation in the run-off, all but two by comfortable margins, in the ballots counted so far.
Two Teeth and Junior Caye will square off on Dec. 14. Caye was the leading vote-getter of the 43 primary candidates for five council seats.
Incumbents finished first or second in the other four district races to move on to the general election as well.
The Montana Department of Corrections has a new American Indian liaison.
Harlan Trombley of Great Falls has been appointed to the post, Department of Corrections director Mike Batista announced Friday.
Trombley, a member of the Blackfeet Tribe, has spent 17 years in the criminal justice field. After serving as a tribal police officer in Browning, he joined the Cascade County Adult Detention Center in 2002, where he has risen through the ranks from a detention officer to a supervisor.
“I’m honored to have this position with the Department of Corrections,” Trombley said in a news release issued by the department. “I look forward to communicating with the Native American offenders, their families, crime victims and others who have questions or concerns related to American Indian culture and correctional practices.”
The Department of Corrections says the liaison “provides guidance and training to corrections staff on American Indian spiritual and cultural issues, within the realms of sound correctional practices.”
A graduate of Browning High School, Trombley earned an associate’s degree from Blackfeet Community College and his bachelor’s, in criminal justice, from the University of Great Falls.
- Vince Devlin
Some tribal leaders skipped the just-concluded White House Tribal Nations Conference this year.
The reason, reports Rob Capriccioso at ICTMN, was simple.
Some tribal leaders have felt so stifled and controlled at previous Obama administration meetings that some who attended in the past chose not to attend this year. Edward Thomas, president of the Central Council of Tlingit and Haida Indian Tribes of Alaska, said he was concerned this conference would turn into another “photo op and publicity staged event as opposed to one where we have the opportunity to tell [the president] directly that his team in not carrying out his promises to Native Americans,” so Thomas cancelled his plans to be there.
However, Capriccioso reports, tribal leaders this year were finally invited to openly question the administration, and “pummeled” officials with concerns they have with Obama’s policies toward Indian Country.
If agency leaders were unaware that tribes have multiple problems with the administration’s decisions on tribal matters before the event, they were quite clear by the end of the day.
“Today was some tough love, but families need to have those conversations,” Environmental Protection Agency Administrator Gina McCarthy told tribal leaders after hearing their concerns throughout the early portion of the conference.
It was big news when, as a presidential candidate in 2008, Barack Obama visited the Crow Reservation in Montana and was adopted into the tribe.
Since being elected, however, Obama has never returned to Indian Country, something he promised tribal leaders Wednesday would change next year. Here’s how the Associated Press reported the latest news:
President Barack Obama told Native American leaders Wednesday that he will make his first trip as president to Indian Country next year, expanding on his vow to enhance the bond between the federal and tribal governments.
Obama told the tribal leaders at the fifth annual White House Tribal Nations Conference that the federal government still has work to do to sustain a strong relationship with tribal governments.
He said that the United States can do more to give tribes more control over their communities and that high rates of poverty among Native Americans are “a moral call to action.” In addition, he said, the federal government needs to ensure that Native Americans have access to affordable health care and must help tribes be good stewards of their native homelands.
“Standing up for justice and tribal sovereignty, increasing economic opportunity, expanding quality health care, protecting native homelands — this is the foundation we can build on,” Obama said.
He recalled that as a candidate he visited Crow Agency, Mont., and vowed to visit tribal lands next year.
The Tribal Nations Conference represents the 566 federally recognized tribes.
The tribal leaders also heard from several Cabinet heads, including Attorney General Eric Holder.
Obama promised during his election campaign to regularly meet with tribal leaders, to hear directly from them about how his administration can meet their needs and help improve their lives.
A newly formed White House Council on Native American Affairs is holding meetings and listening sessions that coincide with the conference. The topics include mascots, violent crime, sacred sites and education.
Is exposure to estrogen-blocking chemicals in one of Canada’s most industrialized regions the reason so few baby boys are born to the Aamjiwnaang First Nation mothers who live near
An article by Brian Bienkowski that originally appeared in Environmental Health News and was picked up by Scientific American says a new study is the first to confirm the community’s concerns over elevated exposure to pollutants.
The findings do not prove that chemicals are causing fewer baby boys in the community, but they provide some limited evidence suggesting a possible link.
“While we’re far from a conclusive statement, the kinds of health problems they experience – neurodevelopment, skewed sex ratios – are the health effects we would expect from such chemicals and metals,” said Niladri Basu, lead author of the study and associate professor at McGill University in Montreal.
A 2005 report said baby boys account for only 35 percent of births in the tribe, compared with 51.2 percent nationwide. The reservation sits within 15 miles of a region known as “Chemical Valley,” which is home to more than 50 industrial facilities, including oil refineries and chemical manufacturers.
Forty-two pairs of Aamjiwnaang mothers and children were tested for the study. For four types of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), the average levels found in the children ranged from 2 to 7 times higher than the average Canadian child. The mothers’ average levels were about double the Canadian average for three of the compounds.
PCBs were widely used industrial compounds until they were banned in the 1970s in the United States and Canada because they were building up in the environment.
Eating fish is the most common exposure route for PCBs. But a survey revealed the community eats very little fish, so the high levels of PCBs remain “a puzzle,” Basu said. He suspects the chemicals are still in the soil and air from decades ago.
Shanna Swan, professor and vice-chair for research and mentoring at the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, noted that the study was small and it is important not to jump to conclusions. Swan surveyed the community to see if there was interest in following up on the original research, based on births between 1999 and 2003, and was told no.
“There’s no question there’s exposure, it’s clearly a polluted place,” Swan told Bienkowski. “But this is their ancestral home … what to they get out of you telling them how badly off they are?”
- Vince Devlin
In 1980, the federal government reached a $102 million settlement with nine tribes for the wrongful taking of the Black Hills in the 1800s.
The tribes refused to accept the money unless they also got the unoccupied, federally owned land promised them in a peace treaty.
Now, with that settlement worth an estimated $1.4 billion after accumulating interest for 33 years, the Oglala Sioux plan to discuss whether to reopen negotiations with the federal government, the Rapid City Journal reports in a story by staff writer Daniel Simmons-Ritchie.
But even the suggestion of discussing whether to accept settlement money … has evoked a strong reaction from some tribal officials, including President Bryan Brewer.
“I will not support any resolution that promotes our tribe receiving any of the money from the Black Hills without the input from the other tribes of the Great Sioux Nation and from our Treaty Council,” Brewer said in a statement Tuesday. “Our tribal members have passionately said over and over again, ‘the Black Hills are not for sale.’ I fully support our tribal members.”
Others say an offer by President Obama’s Administration to restart negotiations and search for “innovative solutions” should be discussed before Obama gets too deep into his second and final term.
Re-opening negotiations would require consensus from the other eight Sioux tribes involved in the 1980 settlement, including Fort Peck in Montana. Also involved are Standing Rock, Cheyenne River, Crow Creek, Lower Brule, Rosebud and Flandreau in South Dakota and Santee in Nebraska.
“All we are trying to do is respond to Obama’s invitation in a realistic way,” said Mario Gonzalez, an attorney who has represented the Oglala Sioux, on and off, for the past 35 years.
Council member James Cross said it was the tribe’s last chance to hear what the Obama administration might offer, but added he doubted the Oglala Sioux council, never mind all nine tribes, would vote to begin negotiations.
The council will take the matter up next week.
- Vince Devlin
Offended that the professional football team headquartered in our nation’s capital still uses a racial slur as its team mascot?
Then you may not be surprised with what was going on with Washington’s NFL franchise in 1961, as Indian Country Today Media Network reported while pointing out a photograph resurrected by Mother Jones magazine.
Back then, the football team owned by the late George Preston Marshall was the last all-white squad in the NFL, and American Nazis marched to encourage him to keep it that way.
One of the signs they held says, “Mr. Marshall, Keep Redskins White!”
When it comes to offensive statements, that would seem the equivalent of piling on. It is relevant today, as ICTMN noted, because current owner Dan Snyder is battling to keep Redskins as the team nickname. (Mother Jones, by the way, refuses to, and redacts the nickname in its stories.)
Both sites refer to Thomas G. Smith’s 2012 book, “JFK and the Integration of the Washington Redskins,” where Smith wrote that Marshall was as upset about the federal government forcing him to integrate (Washington’s stadium is on federal land) as he was at the prospect of diversity.
“Why negroes particularly?” he asked. “Why not make us hire a player from another race? In fact, why not a woman? Of course, we have had players who played like girls, but never an actual girl player.”
The Kennedy administration gave Marshall a choice: let black players on his team, or go find another stadium to play in. The team was integrated, but more than half a century later, many believe Washington’s NFL team is still dragging its feet on racial matters.
- Vince Devlin
Montana’s Blackfeet Tribe isn’t the only tribe plagued by in-fighting.
As Rachel D’Oro of the Associated Press reports, a dispute in the Yup’ik Eskimo community has left a village in Alaska where coastal erosion threatens the town in peril.
As residents wait for a new village to be built on higher ground nine miles away, a dispute over who is in charge has led to a rare intervention by the Bureau of Indian Affairs, which ruled that the sitting tribal council no longer represents the community of 350 as far as the agency is concerned.
Council leaders are appealing the BIA’s decision, which gave the funding-administrative power to a new group that claims it is the rightfully elected council.
Newtok is a flood-prone village of 350 people located 480 miles west of Anchorage. The BIA says necessary council elections were not held for more than seven years. Meantime, new council members were first elected in October of 2012, which prompted the old council to hold another election.
The resulting dispute reached a boiling point in June when the new council got more votes during a community meeting attended by both sides.
Complicating matters are recent audits by the state that concluded the old council mismanaged other relocation grants and paid certain employees “exorbitant” compensation. Officials deny the charges.
Meantime, the new council failed to hold a required election last month, saying it wanted to wait until the dispute over who is in charge is resolved.
- Vince Devlin
A new book by Hattie Kauffman, the first Native American to do standup-reporting for a national television network, only briefly talks about how she rose through the ranks to beome on on-air correspondent for CBS and “Good Morning America.”Instead, writes Tim Giago, publisher and editor emeritus of the Native Sun News in a book review also carried at indianz.com, in “Falling into Place” Kauffman discusses a childhood and first marriage marred by alcohol, and a divorce that turned Kauffman toward christianity. … (M)ostly her book is about the trials and tribulations of her childhood as an Indian torn between the Nez Perce Indian Reservation and cities like Seattle … where her parents, dyed-in-the-wool alcoholics, ranged back and forth dragging her and her six siblings along behind them.
But the thing that tore her world apart and brought her to near madness was the request for a divorce by her husband of 17 years, a request that apparently came out of the blue for her.Giago writes that, until the divorce, this highly successful Native journalist “thought she’d left the ghosts of childhood behind her.” Hattie writes about her first marriage as a teenager to a boy who grows up to be a wife-beater and an alcoholic. She writes that it is strange that daughters of alcoholics often grow up to marry alcoholics. In their dual roles as alcoholics Hattie remembers getting beaten so severely that she had to be admitted to a hospital. At least through a haze of drunken deliriums, she barely remembers. She eventually realizes that alcohol is a destroyer of lives and stops drinking. Giago admits some Native Americans, including himself, may not empathize with Kauffman’s religious views. Many have turned their backs on Christianity and found their own solace and happiness in their traditional spirituality, a spirituality that was torn from them and their ancestors by the missionaries preaching the Doctrine of Christianity. But he still believes the book will resonate, in part because he says Kauffman remains “an unassuming Native woman who never turned her nose up at anyone even though she rose to the pinnacle of media success.” – Vince Devlin
It’s going to take two trips to the polls to decide who’s headed to the Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes’ general election next month.
The Missoulian reports a race so tight between incumbent Reuben Mathias and challenger Len Two Teeth in the Elmo District following the Nov. 2 primary that a recount was forced – and that the recount tightened it up into a tie.
Mathias had held a two-vote lead over Two Teeth on Wednesday after absentee and contested ballots were added to Saturday’s primary vote, triggering Thursday’s recount.
When it was done, Two Teeth’s total remained at 280 votes but Mathias’ total dropped from 282 to 280 as well.
Now Mathias and Two Teeth will meet in a runoff election on Nov. 16 to determine which advances to the general election against Junior Caye, who polled the most votes of any of the 43 candidates on the primary ballot – 639.
Council member Carole DePoe Lankford got the most votes of any of the five incumbents running for re-election – 535.
- Vince Devlin